Er:YAG lasers were a brand-new sort of laser in the 1980s. When the doping concentration is high, the laser can acquire an output of 2.94 um. Since the laser has a wavelength of 2.94 um, right at the absorption peak of water, it can be highly absorbed by water particles. The mass fraction of water in biological cells and tissues is usually greater than 70 percent. Therefore, a 2.94 um laser is an excellent choice for laser biology applications.
Using this band of laser can also stay clear of the damage of other molecular bonds in the cell and also does not have huge thermal damage like CO2 laser; In addition, the permeating deepness of erbium laser in biological tissue is extremely superficial, and its mechanical as well as thermal damage to the body is really tiny. Consequently, the application and advancement of the Er:YAG laser have received much attention in medical circles in your home country and abroad in the last few years.
The laser mechanism of Er:YAG is reasonably complicated yet can recognize under specific problems due to different power transfers
2.94 μm laser outcome. Its macro characteristics are small one-way gain, high limit, as well as challenging to achieve constant result; Nevertheless, as a result of the high doping focus, it is not easy to create saturation to make sure that it can obtain the laser pulse with big power.
Er:YAG crystal belongs to the cubic crystal system, a promising strong laser material in the mid-infrared band, which can result laser of 3 wavelengths at space temperature level: 1.64 μm, 1.78 μm as well as 2.94 μm, among which 1.64 μm as well as 1.78 μm remain in the safe band of human eyes, 2.94 μm remains in the hydroxyl absorption top and also can be strongly taken in by organic tissues, so it has a great application possibility in laser medicine, laser interaction, laser range dimension, and so on application
Applictions of Er:YAG
The output wavelength of Er: YAG laser is 2.94 μm, which is specifically regular with the peak of the water absorption range, and also the absorption coefficient is 13000cm-1, which is the highest among existing medical lasers. It is a type of laser conveniently taken in by water particles and can accomplish a terrific result with little power. The optical penetration depth corresponding to the absorption coefficient is 1μm; compared to various other clinical lasers, the infiltration depth is really shallow. This benefit is matchless to various other wavelengths and can be made use of to execute exact cutting and also soft cells excision surgery. Therefore, it is suitable for precision medical areas such as ophthalmology as well as blood vessel.
Er:YAG laser in cosmetic surgery, bone and tooth cutting and also other applications have brought in much attention.
Furthermore, Er:YAG laser is an extremely secure as well as functional laser resource for medical usage since the damages to water-bearing tissue is mechanical damage brought on by water evaporation, which does not leave burn marks, nor does it have the potential threat of genetics mutation brought on by damage to cell DNA comparable to the excimer laser.
In the last few years, the application of erbium-doped YAG laser in the clinical field has been paid increasingly more interest. With the maturity of Q-switching technology, the problem of Q-switching of Er:YAG laser has relapsed, as well as the regulated 2.94 μm Er:YAG laser, the pulse size is greatly reduced, the peak power is also increased, which better lowers the mechanical damage to the irradiated object surface, and also the thermal damage is virtually zero. The side of the pulse trauma factor is smooth, which is extremely suitable for different accuracy clinical fields.
Among all kinds of wavelength lasers, Er:YAG laser in the mid-infrared band has a wavelength of 2940nm, which takes place to be near the peak of the water absorption curve and the second peak of the hydroxyapatite absorption contour. It is simple to be taken in by water as well as hydroxyapatite, and especially simple to be absorbed by water to produce high power.
Consequently, it can act upon soft and also hard tissues with various water materials to create cutting, ablating and also grinding results as well as eliminate all sort of microorganisms in the cells at the same time. As a result, it is a multi-functional laser commonly used in numerous scientific subspecialties of the mouth.
Additionally, Er: YAG laser has the shallowest tissue infiltration depth, just 2μm in soft cells, 5μm in enamel and 7μm in dentin, which has the advantages of precise treatment and also marginal cells damage in clinical application. At the same time, the water cooling style makes the temperature increase caused by Er: YAG laser irradiation of soft and also difficult cells surface area no greater than 5 ℃, almost no thermal damage, so the cells reaction after treatment is slight, rapid recovery, really suitable for oral minimally intrusive therapy.
The 2.94 μm laser emphasis connects with water-saturated biological cells. It is equivalent to instant heating of a finite quantity in which the stress increases as well as product (such as blood) drains of the cut without thickening, a fancy some surgical procedures. But it was this attribute that resulted in the growth of the laser blood sampler. The effect is excellent. The pain is smaller sized than in acupuncture blood collection. The injury area is smaller, the healing is quick, no infection.
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